Team Based Learning
Team-Based learning (TBL) is the application of small-group, active-learning methods in an environment in which students are held responsible for both individual and group learning. Teams collaborate on application assignments during class. All teams simultaneously share their consensus answers with the entire class for easy comparison and immediate feedback. This leads to class discussion with teams defending their answers and the course facilitator helping to consolidate learning. The original idea for TBL came from Larry Michaelsen at the University of Oklahoma in the 1970s.
Some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and resources on TBL are provided below.
- Introduction to Team-Based Learning by Jim Sibley and Sophie Spiridonoff from The University of British Columbia Centre for Instructional Support
- DeJongh, B., Lemoine, N., Buckley, E., & Traynor, L. (2018). Student Preparation Time for Traditional Lecture versus Team-based Learning in a Pharmacotherapy Course. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 360-366.
- Farland, M. Z., Sicat, B. L., Franks, A. S., Pater, K. S., Medina, M. S., & Persky, A. M. (2013). Best Practices for Implementing Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(8), 177.
- Fete, M. G., Haight, R. C., Clapp, P., & McCollum, M. (2017). Peer Evaluation Instrument Development, Administration, and Assessment in a Team-based Learning Curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(4), 68.
- Frame, T. R., Cailor, S. M., Gryka, R. J., Chen, A. M., Kiersma, M. E., & Sheppard, L. (2015). Student Perceptions of Team-Based Learning vs Traditional Lecture-Based Learning. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(4), 51.
- Gullo, C., Ha, T. C., & Cook, S. (2015). Twelve Tips for Facilitating Team-Based Learning. Medical Teacher, 37(9), 819-824.
- Hall, J., Freeman, S., Parmar, H., & Pluen, A. (2014). Team Based Learning: Preparing Pharmacy Students for an Integrated Curriculum During Induction. Pharmacy Education, 14.
- Hrynchak, P., & Batty, H. (2012). The Educational Theory Basis of Team-Based Learning. Medical Teacher, 34(10), 796-801.
- Jakobsen, K. V., & Knetemann, M. (2017). Putting Structure to Flipped Classrooms Using Team-Based Learning. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 29(1), 177-185.
- Michaelsen, L. K., & Fink, L. D. (Eds.). (2008). Team-Based Learning: Small Group Learning's Next Big Step. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2008 (116), 1-99.
- Michaelsen, L. K., & Sweet, M. (2011). Team‐Based Learning. New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 2011(128), 41-51.
- Ofstad, W., & Brunner, L. J. (2013). Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(4), 70.
- Tweddell, S., Clark, D., & Nelson, M. (2016). Team-Based Learning in Pharmacy: The Faculty Experience. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 8(1), 7-17.
- Whitley, H. P., Bell, E., Eng, M., Fuentes, D. G., Helms, K. L., Maki, E. D., & Vyas, D. (2015). Practical Team-Based Learning from Planning to Implementation. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(10), 149.
Effect of TBL on Learning
Bleske, B. E., Remington, T. L., Wells, T. D., Klein, K. C., Guthrie, S. K., Tingen, J. M., ... & Dorsch, M. P. (2016). A Randomized Crossover Comparison of Team-Based Learning and Lecture Format on Learning Outcomes. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(7), 120.
Haidet, P., Kubitz, K., & McCormack, W. T. (2014). Analysis of the Team-Based Learning Literature: TBL Comes of Age. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3-4), 303.
Reimschisel, T., Herring, A. L., Huang, J., & Minor, T. J. (2017). A Systematic Review of the Published Literature on Team-based Learning in Health Professions Education. Medical Teacher, 39(12), 1227-1237.
Zgheib, N. K., Dimassi, Z., Bou Akl, I., Badr, K. F., & Sabra, R. (2016). The Long-term Impact of Team-Based Learning on Medical Students’ Team Performance Scores and on their Peer Evaluation Scores. Medical Teacher, 38(10), 1017-1024.
- The Team-Based Learning Collaborative, an organization of educators from around the world, encourages and supports the use of Team-Based Learning in all levels of education.
- Learn TBL, Web site for the book Sibley, J., & Ostafichuk, P. (2015). Getting Started with Team-Based Learning. Stylus Publishing, LLC.
Videos on TBL
- Team-Based Learning: Group Work that Works from the Faculty Innovation Center at The University of Texas at Austin
- Duke School of Medicine embraces Team-Based Learning